Prediction: P1 in Andromeda is a black hole that is releasing light

P1 in Andromeda is a “bright black hole”, which is releasing some of the contents that it previously swallowed.  The total luminosity is therefore lower than would be accounted for by the total mass, because only a fraction of the energy content of the mass of the black hole is being released at any one time.

The current theory has a number of stars in eccentric orbit around the black hole, numerous stars “just happenening” to be at their apex in the orbit, to account for the brightness.

I think a black hole that is leaking light is less of a leap than such a contrived orbit of stars, thus Occam’s Razor says the “bright black hole” theory is easier to accept.

Updated Equation E=MCD

In short:


  1. D = 299792458  /  (2.57m x 10^20)^2
  2. C = 299792458  * (2.57m x 10^20)^2
That is, the galaxy has the most density of space at the center of a galaxy.  The density of space is directly proportional to the square of the distance to the center of the galaxy.  The closer to the center you get, the higher the density is.
Thus C is the speed of light at Earth.  Light is the slowest at the center of a galaxy.  It’s speed decreases inversely proportional to the square of the distance to the galactic center.

There is no way to get 0 distance from something else (you would be in the same space) so there are no singularities. Time just gets very slow relative to the outside in a “black hole” and black holes should evaporate.

Units of measure and important numbers

  • 1 electron meter (eM) = the diameter of an electron in meters = 2.81794033×10^-15 meters
  • 1 electron kilogram (eKg) = the mass of an electron in kilograms =  9.10938291×10^-31 kg
  • 1 electron volume (eN) = the amount of space occupied by 1 electron = 4/3 * pi * .5eM^3
  • 1 electron area (eA) = the surface area of an electron = 4 * pi * .5eM^2 
  • C is a constant which represents the speed  of light (in meters/sec) at the midpoint between the Earth and the Sun at the orbit aphelion.
  • D is a unit-less measure of the density of space.  It is defined to be 1.0 at the midpoint between the Earth and the Sun at the orbit aphelion.
  • G (gravity*) =  The force of the space pushing back against an electron is equal to the total energy of the electron, distributed evenly over the surface of the electron. The force decreases from the center of mass with the inverse square law, and is equal at all points on the surface of the electron = (9.10938291×10^-31 * CD) / 1 eA


* All particles with mass displace space equal to their mass.
** Space can vibrate, and expand and contract faster than light can travel through it, so space itself can carry information faster than light.

Theory of relative spatial density

The Equation


    1. D = 299792458  /  (2.57m x 10^20)^2
    2. C = 299792458  * (2.57m x 10^20)^2
That is, the galaxy has the most density of space at the center of a galaxy.  The density of space is directly proportional to the square of the distance to the center of the galaxy.  The closer to the center you get, the higher the density is.
Thus C is the speed of light at Earth.  Light is the slowest at the center of a galaxy.  It’s speed decreases inversely proportional to the square of the distance to the galactic center.

What is space?

  1. Space is a physical substance that is displaced by matter.
  2. Where matter exists space is displaced, that is, the density of space around the object is increased.
  3. Displaced space puts reverse pressure on matter.
  4. Space may not be created, nor destroyed, but  can be compressed, and can form waves.
  5. As the compression of a volume of space increases, the density of that space increases.
  6. All space, even the vacuum  between bodies in the solar system, has a non-zero density.

What is matter?

  1. Matter takes up space.  It is made of subatomic particles like electrons and protons  which create wave signatures in space (to carry voltage or electromagnetic force), and/or increase its density like neutrons.
  2. The properties of the subatomic particles of the standard model are created by waves in space.
  3. Atoms are tied together by gravity (see radiation below), and the strong and weak nuclear force which I will describe later.
  4. The standard model of particles can be used.  The Higg’s boson is needed for mass.  Gravity is accounted for by the equal-opposite force to the displacement of space.

What is time?

Time is a construct of the mind.  There is no physical concept of time, such as the smallest unit of time possible, since time is based on the observation of Entropy.  The uncertainty principle exists because we necessarily add entropy to something in order to measure it, because the only thing we can observe is Entropy.   This means that light, for example, does not have a constant speed which is the same in every vacuum in the Universe.  Instead, the speed of light must be measured just like other things like voltage potential or resistance.  Essentially, each of us are energy enriched space examining other energy enriched space to create time.  Time does not have any natural arrow, and information can flow either direction.

The nature of light

The particle of light is the photon.  The apparent wave/particle nature of light is caused by the photon creating a wave in space.  That is, light  is not really both a wave and a particle, but rather a particle creating a wave in space.

This theory of light explains the dual slit experiment:
The laser is generating photons which are creating a compression wave in space in front of the photons.  When the dual slits are encountered, the waves in space cancel, but the photons continue on to the wall, which is why there is always coherent light in the end.

The speed of light

Creating the wave in space requires energy, which limits the speed of light.  Space expands behind the light, so there is zero net energy loss, but the light is slowed relative to the density of the space in which it is travelling.   Because of this light will travel as quickly as possible in a vacuum but not instantly.

In other words, the speed of light is mediated by spatial density and is not constant in the Universe.

The nature of Gravity

All matter/energy displaces space.   Space acts essentially like a kind of memory foam.  As space is displaced by matter/energy, the space pushes back on what is displacing it.  The displacement can also cause vibrations in space.

The Earth, like other large bodies, is displacing a very large amount of space around it, pushing it out like an accordion.  The space around earth is also being “dragged” around it.

The “equal-opposite” (downward pushing) force which arises in opposition to this outward spatial displacement is what we call Gravity.  Indeed,  gravity is pushing you down, not pulling you down.

The density of space is highest near the surface of the Earth.  The density  is inversely proportional to the distance from the center of mass of the object.

On mass

Higg’s Bosons are affected by the spatial density change near a particle.  They are slowed down by it and this creates the mass by increasing the volume of bosons near matter.


Bodies may orbit each other for one of two different reasons.  The first is caused by a large body dragging space around with it as it rotates.  You can think of this effect like a whirlpool in space.  That dragging effect causes traditional Newtonian orbits.

Spatial displacement/spatial density explains the orbit of Mercury.  The Sun is displacing a very large amount of space, thus the density near it’s surface is very high.  Mercury is also displacing space, but less so, of course.  The waves being generated by the two bodies create an interference pattern,  creating a kind of “groove” for the smaller body to orbit in.

Gravitational lens effect

Just as water and glass bend light by slowing it down, so does the density of a vacuum in space.  Denser areas of space will slow light and thus curve light more than less dense areas.  This is easily observable and in fact used by modern space telescopes.

“Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its transmission medium. Due to change of medium, the phase velocity of the wave is changed but its frequency remains constant. “

So basically, what I’m saying is that space has density and as you move from one density to another density it is equivalent to changing mediums.

“Time” dilation

This also explains why atomic clocks run differently in GPS satellites:  The spatial density is lesser there.  Since the speed of light is controlled by space density, “time” is also ruled by spatial density.

There is no Dark matter (galaxy rotation problem solved)

There is no need for dark matter.  The galaxy rotation problem appears because the density of space on the outside of a spiral galaxy is much lower than the density at the core.  This creates an apparent paradox, because time runs faster on the outside of the Galaxy than on the inside.

This is because the density of the space in the galaxy diminishes at the edges.  Since the upper limit for the speed of light is determined by the density of the space in which the light is travelling in, light travels faster on the outside than the inside and appears to violate causality from our perspective.


Radioactive decay happens because space is pushing back against the displacement of space by the atom’s contents (same force as gravity) but in an unstable element there is simply not enough force to keep everything together and some energy leaks out periodically.


The iron atoms in a magnet are lined up that they create a wave in space.  A magnet is like a ‘tuning fork for space’.  When you drop iron filings in front of the magnet, they fall into the troughs of the waves being generated by the material.

Strong nuclear force

The strong nuclear force is created in an atom by wave interference, which is similar to the interaction of mercury around the sun.

Weak nuclear force

The weak nuclear force is similar to the small satellite orbiting the sun.  The smaller objects is dragged along in space and does not have enough energy to break away.

Black holes (no singularity)

Time will get slower and slower at the center of a black hole.  At the center of a black hole would be something like a diamond of thick space in which time would run so slowly as to effectively be stopped from an external perspective.

Vacuum Energy – aka spontaneous particle creation/annihilation

There is a lot of free energy in the space around us, because it has a lot of density relative to interstellar space.  This means it is kind of “boiling” with energy.  This leads to particles popping into existence as described by quantum mechanics.  This is precisely why I said space never has a density of zero.  There must be some vacuum energy so that particles can be created.

Quantum tunneling

 Quantum tunneling is usually described as a ball that does not have the energy to crest a hill, yet sometimes in quantum mechanics the ball “goes through” the hill.  The ball is said “to borrow” energy somehow.
The energy that is “borrowed” in quantum tunneling is accounted for in my theory by space itself compressing and expanding.
Every once in awhile some mass in the form of a particle/anti-particle will pop up in the energy randomly (see above).  One or both of these may displace “the ball” pushing it through the hill (a tunnel).  The energy transfer is conserved in the space which expands/contracts as the particle tunnels.  The new particles can annihilate and it won’t affect “the ball”, it will make it through to the other side.

Universal expansion is only perceived, so no dark energy is needed

Matter thins out (and thus space becomes less dense) as you approach the edge of the visible universe.  This would lead to a perceived acceleration of the expansion of the universe, which matches our observations.  The same kind of thinning at the edges is displayed in spiral galaxies.  It may be that the universe itself is spinning.


atom model
hydrogen photons compress space Spatial Density