# [--THIS IS A PRE-RELEASE DRAFT OF A THEORY WHICH IS IN DEVELOPMENT--]

## Quantum Relativity

## A description of the motion of celestial bodies through formal unification of classical, relativistic and quantum physics, and the fundamental nature of the light, time, energy, mass, and the quantum force

### Justin Swanhart

Via careful measurement over a long period of time, it has been shown that neither of the two accepted theories of gravity accurately predict the motion of various objects in the Universe. These aberrations between the predicted and observed motion of the stars and planets suggests that these theories are flawed, but thus far no theory has been forwarded to offer a better solution to universal gravitation compared to general relativity. This leaves scientists no current recourse but to employ hypothetical substances (dark matter/energy) or exotic explanations (dark flow). The observed motion of the objects, is a kind of paradox. Since we do not expect the laws of physics to create paradox, it was extremely difficult to arrive at the mathematical solution to this paper. To do so requires discarding the most fundamental concept in all of modern physics. This is to expected, for if the Universe worked the way our current assumptions describe, general relativity would be correct. In order to correct the problem, the inverse square law (which actually correctly predicts the motion of Mercury, but this appears to not be true due to the above paradox) is unified with special relativity, which describes relativistic effects, in order to understand the difference between the predicted and measured magnitude of the precession of Mercury's orbit. The paradox is created by the fact that not only does light spread with distance via the inverse square law, but it's speed increases exponentially too, which makes sense. Since light propagates according the inverse square law, as it spreads it always covers twice the distance in the same amount of time, it must be doubling in speed. This effect is caused by the interaction of light and gravity via quantum foam.

Quantum foam provides an answer to all outstanding questions in both general relativity and quantum mechanics, and eliminates the need for a quantum gravity solution, the mathematical solution described requires only special relativity and the law of Universal gravitation, in an alternative formalism to general relativity. Still, given the nature of the quantum atomic model, presented later to replace the standard model, it is possible that some of the concepts of string theory, such a holographic reality, may still prove true. The process responsible for gravity is identified in this paper as *quantum foam deformation and compression, *or simply *quantum compression*. Quantum compression is ultimately responsible for the affects of gravity, wave/particle duality, and the quantum force, a unified force responsible for the other forces, not only in the past, but at this very moment.

## 1.0 - As simple as possible, but no simpler

### 1.0.1 - A new law is needed

For approximately 100 years there has been no major progress on an alternate theory of universal gravity to the general theory of relativity. Evidence from the last twenty years shows that such a solution must account for spiral galaxy rotation, accelerating expansion, and dark flow. Proposed solutions include quantum loop gravity and string theory but neither are ready to replace relativity today. Resolves the issues with universal law of gravitation and general relativity, achieves a solution to universal gravitation through the unification of special relativity with the law of universal gravitation. The resulting law incorporates the mechanism of gravity directly into special relativity, which effectively negates the need for general relativity. The mathematical complexity of the new solution is no more complex than either the universal law of gravity or special relativity alone. In fact, only simplified relativity is actually needed. The problem, at high level, is that special relativity identifies the relationship between matter and energy, but it is an over-simplification, because the process of converting between matter and energy is defined as instantaneous, but it really is exchanged at the speed of entropy, and a topological feature of the quantum foam causes the speed of entropy to vary at different locations in the universe, for reasons outlined in the next section.

A simpler solution to a problem is preferred of course over a complex one, so long as the solution is a simple as possible and no simpler. This paper fully addresses the outstanding questions in general relativity and quantum mechanics without the need of strings, extra dimensions or branes. The lack of progress indicates that some fundamental assumption or understanding in physics must be incorrect, because surely, with the technology of the past and present centuries, one would expect that after a century of work by the brightest minds on Earth, at least a hint of the problem with general relativity would be uncovered. A formalized mathematical description of gravity cannot be arrived upon, without coming to an understand of what the incorrect assumption is. The nature of light, time and the topology of space can not be understood unless the assumption is corrected.

### 1.0.2 - The systematic failure of scientific certainty

While some scientists in the past 50 years have suggested that the speed of light may not be constant in the Universe, this is normally in the context of the period shortly after the bang, or some other point in the past. I have yet to find a physicist who does not conform the the consensus that the speed of light is constant. Of course, the justification for rejecting any possibility that this principle is the fact that we simply can not understand the way the Universe would work if it did not hold true. Now consider that in the last 20 years, science has embraced magical concepts which defy any form of rational explanation in the form of dark matter, dark energy, and dark flow, for the very reason that the Universe appears to operate in an inconsistent way that we do not understand.

Question assumptions.

Consider that if the speed of light were not constant, it would be nearly impossible to understand how the universe worked. No matter how hard you tried, if you did not understand that time was flowing differently in different places you could never come to a formal understanding of how the universe works. Finally consider the above assertions in the context that no progress has been made on gravitation for 100 years. The evidence for a variable speed of light is in the failure of the law of gravity to predict the magnitude of the precession of Mercury, and it is in the failure of general relativity to predict the galaxy rotation problem, accelerating expansion, and dark flow. More importantly, a variable speed of light provides a singular mechanism of action for all four exceptions to the theories, instead of three different competing and incompatible explanations.

### 2.0 - A solution to the galaxy rotation problem

Each of the four motion aberrations result from the same physical process. I've chosen to explore the galaxy rotation problem first, not because it is simplest, but because it features two different forms of motion aberration. The magnitude of Mercury's precession is also based on The angular velocity of starts at the outside is too high, the speed on the inside too low. If the speed of light were not constant, what would be seen if an observer used a telescope to peer into a region of space where the speed of light was different than the speed measured here on Earth? How would the motion appear? If the speed of light in the region being observed were greater than expected, then the objects in that region would *appear* to move faster than possible for the amount of matter present. Should the observed region have a slower than expected speed of light, the motion of the objects in that region should appear slower than expected. Let the velocity of the observed object be the *aberrant velocity*. The object can not actually be moving at the aberrant velocity. If it were, there would not be a problem with general relativity as there would be mass to account for it. The simple formula d=rt explains the reason for the aberrant motion. If an object covers more distance than it's rate of speed, the only possible conclusion is that time is flowing at a different rate. Time does flow at a different rate, because the light is moving at a different rate. Further, consider that an observation of motion is really an observation of the process of entropy. The laws of thermodynamics describe entropy as the rate at which energy spreads over time. The aberrant velocity must therefore represent an increase in the rate of entropy. The speed of light does not create time, but the speed of entropy does. Time is a construct with no actual meaning. It arises merely as a biological need to understand the process of entropy around us. Time is not woven into the fabric of space, because time does not, in fact exist.

At one end of the spectrum lies the center of the galaxy. Here lies a highly dense environment of stars in close proximity to the mass of the super-massive black hole at the center. Here, objects move at a rate that is lower than that predicted by general relativity. The opposite effect is seen at the outer edge of that galaxy. Unlike the area near the core which is densely packed with stars, the region is quite sparse because it lies at the outer edge of the galaxy, which recedes at the edges. The stellar density in this region is quite low. While the influence of the core remains quite strong to the edges (which must be true for the galaxies to hold together) the effect of gravity is significantly reduced in comparison to stars near the core. These two differences together can be used to understand the relationship between the speed of light, gravity, and the amount of energy contained in a vacuum.

The most important fundamental question which must be asked is, "why is there a speed of light?" If one is certain that the speed of light is constant, then the answer is that it is impossible. If one is not certain, then the answer is by providing a mathematical formulation that can predict the speed of light in places where it is different. Before I provide the mathematical formalism a though experiment is needed to intuit the explanation.

While it is understood for example that light is a particle and wave, there exists no theoretical framework for which to describe how that relationship arises. The mystery of the composition of light is probably the most important problem in all of Physics, because an incomplete understanding of light will inevitably lead to a problem with light related phenomena. Without an understand of why light behaves as a Special and general relativity are predicated on the constancy of the speed of light. In 1887 after a single experiment, it was decided that the speed of light was exactly the same everywhere in the Universe because this singular experiment showed that the velocity of light of a given frequency is constant on Earth. This determination was made in the context that Michelson and Morely were testing luminiferous aether theory, a theory which predates special relativity. Aether theory predicted that space was constructed of an aether which would affect the speed of light, resulting in minor variations in the measurement of the speed at Earth. The experiment, however, was a big disappointment for them, because the speed of light as observed on Earth did not feature variations, it was constant in all of the various measurements of the device used for the experiment. The experiment was, in fact actually a success, but they had no way of knowing it. Aether theory predicted that space would be structured in such a way that a multitude of speed variations should be seen, and when that did not pan out, no theory was advanced which predicted that the speed of light is constant at fine granularity, but at larger distances it varies significantly.

Having considered what would happen if the speed of light varied in a particular region, now consider the four known fundamental motion problems. These are again: dark matter, dark energy, dark flow, and the precession of the orbit of Mercury. The orbit of Mercury was supposed to be addressed by general relativity, but it is based on special relativity, which is based on the notion of a constant speed of light. As a result, it is an unfortunate reality that general relativity is a mathematical model of the conditions of space in our solar system, a kind of mathematical Orrery. In much of the Universe, conditions are similar enough to Earth such that general relativity continue to work at scale, except where the conditions differ greatly, such at the edges or near the core of a spiral galaxy.

Newton's law which held for 228 years, was supplanted by general relativity when it was shown that it could not predict the precession of Mercury's orbit. , and the velocity aberrations which necessitate dark matter, dark energy, and dark flow, all arise from an identical *apparent* *paradox. *An *apparent* *paradox* is a visual effect created by the influence of quantum foam on the flow of time. This influence, named here as the paradox effect, arises due to the interaction of energy with quantum foam.

This interaction causes a deformation of Space-time is simply an approximate of quantum foam deformation. The mathematical description of this compression and its effect, and a physical explanation of the exact mechanism of the action is provided in the third portion of this section. The paradox effect is sinister in that it leads us to the conclusion that our mathematical description of the Universal gravitation is wrong, when it reality it is in fact, absolutely correct if the effect is accounted for.

## 1.0 The topology of space

The concepts of space, light, gravity and mass are tightly bound, and it is practically impossible to discuss them in isolation, but, for the purposes of this paper I have attempted to do so in the most straightforward way possible. The general theory of relativity relies upon the framework describing special relativity.

Quantum foam as a substrate for space-time, are not accurate. Quantum foam is the actual topological feature upon which everything is built. It is deformed by energy like spacetime, but unlike spacetime, quantum foam is subject to Newton's laws of motion, most importantly Newton's third law. The deformation of quantum foam, the physical reaction to the deformation form the underlying process of nearly all known phenomena in the Universe. Unlike space-time, quantum foam works in three dimensions, and the coordinates of time no longer conform to any given coordinates of space. Time may flow differently in different regions conform to Einstein's descriptions of space-time, unifies the three major branches of physics, introduces a new atomic model to replace the standard model, a description of how each of the four forces are each different expression of the same unified force, and finally it addresses many of the outstanding puzzles in general relativity, then provides an explanation for each of the quantum mechanical effects.

1.0.1 - A return of the Law of Universal Gravitation

The law of Universal gravitation remains the most important physical theory in the history of physics. The inverse square law, Newton's mathematical description of gravity the mathematical formulation of this law is not highly complex, yet it accurately describes the observed motion and measurements of every planet in the solar system. Please note that that a failure to omit Mercury from the list of planets supported by the law of Universal gravitation is not a mistake. The inverse square law can be used to properly predict the motion of Mercury, even

### 1.0.1 - General relativity

While Mercury's motion as predicted by general relativity is correct, it is a result of a carefully hand tuned model specifically designed to account for the movement of Mercury around the sun. As the goal of general relativity is to describe Universal gravitation, which should be consistent everywhere, the model suggested by the motion of Mercury should have resulted in a model that fits the rest of the Universe. It doesn't. The need for dark phenomena arises from the fact that for some reason, a model built on our system does not work everywhere in the Universe.

Quantum foam deformation as proposed by this paper, is, however, capable of all of the same properties of space-time, thus all general relativity observations are consistent in it, but this deformation explains the apparent paradoxes too.

Without the evidence collected in the past 20 years it would be impossible to fit the strangeness of Mercury's orbit into a pattern into which all of the velocity aberrations fall, including the Galaxy rotation anomaly. When closely examined, there is a pattern which can be discerned into which each of the velocity anomalies fits. The problem is mathematically related to where an object is located in the Universe. Due to the structure of quantum foam.

In order to understand the underlying cause of the paradox, it is necessary to abandon general relativity. Space-time is not compatible with physical structure of quantum foam. To replace general relativity, a unification of the law of universal gravitation and special relativity must be accomplished, which is detailed below.

If you asked most physicists what the problem with the law of gravity is, they would probably quip, "Why, it's because it isn't general relativity!", and of course, on the surface that makes complete and total sense. General relativity was made to replace the law of gravity. Reality, however, does not conform to such straightforward notions. Unlike general relativity, which is discussed next, the law of universal gravitation remains an important part of this theory, the "theory of relative spatial compression", because counter-intuitively, the inverse square law is actually the tool necessary to understand what is wrong with the law of universal gravitation itself. This is fully explained in section two.

## 1.0.1 - Quantum foam

Dark matter and its kin are illusions. They arise from an *apparent* paradox. There is nothing "wrong" with galaxy rotation.

They are moving at the exact proper rate for the mass of the galaxy they reside in, but In fact, there is nothing The illusion created by this paradox has convinced us that the math we use to describe Universal gravitation is wrong. All three are the result of an apparent paradox caused the interaction of energy with quantum foam. Space-time, which tightly couples space and time is not an accurate description of Universal gravitation because it does not describe the properties of quantum foam, which is responsible for the. Space is not a tightly coupled fabric of space and time, but is instead constructed from quantum foam. The physical characteristics of quantum foam have, until now, been simply speculation. While theoretical limits have been placed on the behavior of quantum f, those limits take into account the constraints necessary to satisfy

## 2.0 The topology of space

The new topological feature is ultimately responsible for mass, gravity, the speed of light, and even time. The reason that this feature has remained undiscovered and unknown for so long, is that to mathematically describe it requires unifying the law of universal gravitation with the theory of special relativity. More importantly it requires abandoning a key assumption of special relativity, one that most physicists would argue is impossible to abandon. This unification, fully described in the following section, provides an explanation for the the mechanism of gravity without resorting to the curved space-time of general relativity. Further, special relativity once unified with universal gravitation, renders general relativity completely unnecessary. Unlike general relativity, this theory provides a theoretical framework in which it is possible to understand numerous riddles in physics, such as the physical nature of light and why particles of light are accompanied by waves.

### 2.0.1 - Revisiting old assumptions

All theories are based on assumptions. In order for the theories to be considered correct, the assumptions that they are based upon must hold true. There is one assumption which is absolutely pervasive. Each and every educated person in the world knows it, and it absolutely can not be questioned. Even though this is the case, in order to advance a mathematical framework which can explain the dark phenomena , it is necessary to discard the constancy of the speed of light in a vacuum. the speed of light is not constant in the universe, but instead is significantly affected by the topology of space-time, in particular the spatial compression level of the volume of space that the light is travelling through affects the wavelength of light, but not the frequency.

## New special relativity (SR)

Where general relativity proposes curved spacetime, this theory proposes that space is compressed in three dimensions around matter. I, however, propose that space undergoes *space compression,* not curvature, when exposed to energy. Matter "carves out" the space around it, this compresses the space, which then decompresses in a wave over an unlimited distance. The complexity created by the equations of curved space in general relativity is not necessary, as gravity is incorporated into this theory through the inverse square law instead which explains how light propagates through the medium of space from a 3d sphere. Light increases in speed as it moves away from mass, and slows as it approaches it. This makes the framework much simpler compared to general relativity, and quantum mechanics, and string theory, but this simpler theory can explain the phenomena described by those theories equally well, or better, and they are explained at the end of the paper, after the mathematics are formalized and quantified.

This theory is first and foremost a variable speed of light (VSL) theory. Most VSL proposals suggest that the speed of light might be different in different regions of the Universe, or that it might have been different in the past. This paper proposes that the speed of light varies greatly at the Universe, not just in the past, but right now. It varies just as much as gravity, in fact, the speed of light is inversely proportional to the observed strength of gravity, as both are related to the amount of space compression in a particular volume of space. This theory, however, is not merely a VSL theory. It is a theory of everything. You will find not only revised SR, but, an updated version of Newton's laws of motion, a new atomic mode, an explanation of the properties ferromagnetic materials. And an explanation of the nuclear forces, of gravity, and of the exact nature of mass. Finally at the end of the paper there is an explanation of all observed GR problems (no dark anything); a description of what happens inside of black holes and finally, an explanation of the outstanding problems in quantum mechanics, such as the the observer effect, and quantum tunneling, using the framework presented in the paper.

The framework is able to predict the precession of Mercury's^{1} orbit to at least the same degree as GR, or better, but also explains the movement of distant objects, such as stars at the edge of a spiral galaxy. The simple mathematical solutions to both problems are presented later in the paper. You will find the mathematics below very simple compared to GR. At first it may in fact seem impossibly simple, however the math accurately accounts for the observations which contradict GR, such as the galaxy rotation anomaly, while still accurately accounting for the predictions of GR on the small scale, such as the precession of Mercrury.

special relativity uses a non-inertial reference frame ^{2}, which is a frame of reference that is undergoing acceleration with respect to an inertial frame. While this is useful, it does not properly relate rest mass to energy, because the particle is not at rest, but is under acceleration, that is, there is a force being applied to it by the inertial frame. To use rest mass, it is necessary to define a frame containing an object at rest, an *absolute-rest* reference frame.

Let an absolute-rest reference frame be a frame of reference where an object is at rest where there are no other objects on which to form a frame of reference. Let an at-rest reference frame be an object that is at rest on an object that is travelling at a constant rate of speed. An example of an at-rest reference frame is an apple sitting on the ground under a tree on Earth, with no linear motion in any direction, except the motion imparted by the movement of the Earth. There is no acceleration in such a frame.

If we use the absolute-rest reference frame as a model of a small one particle Universe then there are no other particles to interact with it, thus it must be at rest. The particle has the energy of the rest mass converted to energy. This energy results in movement, but not linear movement, instead the movement of *spin*.* *The at-rest reference frame is a frame with absolute rest, and it is resolves the problems with the non-inertial reference frame. Let an at-rest reference frame be a frame of reference of an object at rest with respect to another frame. Of course, this means particles spin in an at-rest reference frame too, they simply spin more slowly than the absolute-rest reference frame.

*Spin* is very important. It transfers angular momentum through additive space compression (explained shortly) and it provides the groundwork of the revised atomic model presented after the following math on motion. Of course, Einstein could not know that particles spin, as scientists were unable to measure that at the time, and for his thought experiment, and his focus was on motion with relation to the speed of light, so he used a particle in motion.

## cannot be solved correctly

Even though is constant (the speed of light is the energy of a photon) in the original special relativity, it can't be solved for unless E=1, M=1, C=1, that is, if you assign an arbitrary equal energy and mass, and stipulate that the energy of the photon is equal to the speed of the photon, a solution for c does not work.

*Let e=3, the energy of a photon*

* Let m=3, the mass of a photon as energy*

* Let c, the speed of the photon be the energy of the photon*

* Let the frame be the non-intertial frame*

**can't solve this equation for c**

## Revised SR: the inverse square law

The inverse square law of gravitation, as defined by Newton^{3} fails to explain the motion of Mercury. The observed motion of Mercury when compared to the motion predicted by Newton, shows the prediction to be wrong, and this is known as the precession of Mercury's orbit. The problem lies in the fact that Mercury lies near a massive object, the Sun. If this time dilation can be taken into account, Newton's theory is correct, including his theorem of orbits, discussed later.

*First, stipulate that c is a variable, not the value of the constant C, and that 1/c is the amount by which light is slowed down by space compression.
*

*The usual measure of c is a measure of the speed of light*

Incorporating the inverse square law, the constant becomes the expression

This new equation can be used to integrate special relativity with Newton's laws of motion, the equations of which are provided shortly.

### The variable speed of light in revised SR

This theory introduces a variable speed of light. The speed of light varies using the inverse square law, which describes how light propagates over distance. The value c in the speed of light is controlled by *space compression*, which is responsible for gravity and the speed of light.

With the modified special relativity with inverse square law, the speed of light is different everywhere. There is no absolute maximum or minimum speed of light, instead the "local speed of light" is metered by space compression., but still, the concepts of relativity still hold. When a body is accelerated toward the speed of light, time slows because adding energy compresses space, which slows time. Space can not be compressed faster than light compresses it, no matter how much energy is used, so the local speed of light is a local speed limit. There is one particle, the neutrino, which travels faster than the speed of light, the details of which are in the atomic model section. Neutrinos are very important in matter construction, magnetism and quantum entanglement, each of which are detailed in later sections.

The speed of light is metered by *space compression*. Space compression is the cause of gravity, so it can be said that gravity affects light speed. The reality is that spatial compression slows light and causes gravity.

### Consequences for general relativity (GR)

In order integrate the change to general relativity, one simply need replace the constant C with the expression (1/c * distance^2). This reflects the nature that the speed of light is not constant, but instead is directly proportional to the distance from the body emitting light, inversely proportional to the strength of the gravitational field. However, general relativity provides only an approximation. The rest of this paper deals specifically Simplified special relativity is the only version of relativity needed, and because it describes rest mass and rest energy, it can be incorporated into all of Newtons's equations of motion, which deal with objects at rest. The speed of light increases dramatically with distance away from mass, and this can be used to resolve the galaxy rotation curve^{4}, and to compute the time dilation which leads to the precession of Mercury. The math for both is provided.

## Mass/Energy Equivalence

*I stipulate that in an absolute-rest frame, distance represents the radius of that sphere. Later, when used with the laws of motion, distance has various contexts.
I stipulate distance is unitless when the frame is an absolute-rest frame.*

*I stipulate that at rest, the distance is equal to the energy of the particle.*

I stipulate that the shape of the particle which carves out space through compression is a sphere.

I stipulate that the shape of the particle which carves out space through compression is a sphere.

*Let , the energy of a photon
Let , the speed of a photon is the energy of the photon
Let , the diameter of the photon*

Thus energy and mass are equivalent. Any particle with mass less than a photon will travel faster than a photon, anything heavier than a photon will travel slower than a photon. Here is an example using a mass greater than a photon. The particle *spins* with energy = 1.

## The speed of light around increased mass

*Let the frame be an absolute-rest frame.*

*Let e=3, m=3, distance=3
*

*L*

*et represent the space compression level, how much light is slowed by space compression*

*Let the speed of light be*

*Solve for c:*

The particle *spins* with the 1/3 the rest energy of the photon, because space compression slows motion down around mass

When mass =3 , the speed of light is 1/3 that of a photon, or 1.

A particle that slows is refracted. 1/3 is the refraction index.

**Computing the speed of light at a certain distance**

1. Measure the speed of light at your location.

2. Use the inverse square law to calculate the speed of light at a certain distance

An example of this is used in the prediction of the precession of Mercury, presented next.

## Computing the precession of Mercury's spin through time dilation

The orbit of Mercury undergoes more arcseconds of rotation than it appears it should. The arcsecond rotation difference is caused exclusively by time dilation. Since space compression refracts space is slows down light which slows down time.

Computing the precession of Mercury was the first big test of general relativity. Unfortunately general relativity was "tuned" to Mercury and it does not predict how the speed of light changes outside of the solar system.

Newton predicted 5557 arcseconds of rotation, while Einstein's general relativity predicted 5600.

*Let *, *The arcseconds of rotation predicted by Newton*

*Let* , *The arcseconds of rotation predicted by general relativity*

*Let* , *The ratio between Newton's prediction and general relativity*

To determine how much time slows at Mercury, it is necessary to use two predictions

*The first prediction uses the point at which Mercury is closes to Earth.*

* The second one using farthest distance between Mercury and Earth.*

* The ratio between these two numbers is angular velocity and should be very close to .*

**Time dilation at Mercury when closest to Earth
**, speed of light measured Earth

**Use the inverse square law to compute speed of light at closest point
**

**Time dilation at Mercury when farthest from Earth
**

**Calculate the angular velocity between the two points**

Since the angular velocity is < 1, time is slowed by

Since is very close to , the prediction is accurate.

Thus the observed motion (5600) is accurate because time slows down by .

## Explaining the shape of the orbit

The orbits of bodies is due to angular momentum (1/c) of an object can be transferred through space compression. The orbits of bodies are accurately described by the inverse square law, but precessional orbits appear highly elliptical due to the inverse square law affect on time dilation. The orbits are all ellipses, but the motion of the planet increases and decreases based on time dilation. This results in the exaggerated ellipse at Mercury, for example. When Mercury is farthest from the sun, the orbit is elongated because time speeds up. Nearest to the sun, time is slowed, so the motion is slower than expected.

The exact shape of the orbit can be predicted by modifying Chandresakhar's ^{5} modern derivation of Newton's Theorem of Orbits:

The value of * is replaced with , which the angular momentum of the body.*

The value or *r *is replaced with distance for clarity.

*The value of k is replaced with:* ()

The value m is replaced with from from special relativity.

if then the orbit is attractive. If it is less than zero then it is repulsive.

## Calculating the distance of distant objects such as galaxies

There is no math needed to adjust redshift distance calculations. They remain right. Between the gulf of galaxies and solar systems, light speeds up to the halfway to the next galaxy, then slows down as it approaches the next galaxy, cancelling any extra shift.

## Entropic-time

There is a rate by which the thermodynamic process of entropy proceeds, a rate of entropy. This rate is controlled by the additive space compression, discussed in the next section "space compression and motion". The speed of entropy is always the same as the speed of light. Thus as the level of compression increases, the rate of entropy slows down. In this way, space compression gives rise to time as the fourth dimension. The fourth dimension is not a part of the fabric of space, but an *emergent property* of the spread of energy at a rate of the speed of light. The process of entropy gives rise to the arrow of time, as entropy can not be undone and always proceeds forward without stopping.

**Compression lensing**

The conventional refraction index for light in space is , which means that space will not curve light. With the refined value of , is redefined index of refraction in space. Creating a wave in space (the doppler affect) borrows energy, which slows and curves the particle by changing the wavelength but not the frequency. is the space compression level and space compression bends light. A change in space compression is a change in a medium and causes refraction. Frequency is generated by the frequency of emission at the source of the light and is not affected by space compression. See wave particle duality in the quantum mechanics section.

Since space compression can be considered a proxy for gravity, it is acceptable to say that gravity bends light, but there is no gravity field to interact with the light. The light is curved due to refraction in the medium of space.

## Compressed space

The reason that distance in E=M(1/C\times distance^2) ^2 is squared twice is because energy is distributed in four dimensions. There are three real dimensions, plus the forth perceived dimension, which is the speed at which the energy moves, in other words, the speed of entropy, which is time. general relativity predicts curved spacetime.

A particle imparts energy to space equal to the volume of the energy of the particle.

*Let m equal the mass of a particle
Let distance = diameter of the particle, which is equal to the mass of the particle*

That is, the volume of energy of compression is equal to the volume of the sphere created by the particle. Energy spreads evenly over three dimensions and reduces with distance in all three dimensions.

**Confirming the predictions**

The best way to confirm these predictions would be to send a probe to Mercury and a probe to Pluto, and at each take two measurements, the speed of light, and the current time using the most accurate clock available. Each set of measurements shall be relayed to Earth. It is expected that the clock and the speed of light will increase/decrease at Pluto and Mercury, respectively.

# Space compression and motion

Each of Newton's laws of motion has been modified by inserting special relativity into it. In addition, a modern derivation of Newton's theorem of orbits is included as well. The equations in this section are based on the the combination of Newton's Principia Mathematica^{6}

## Angular momentum

All particles spin left or spin right. Let *c* be the measure of the speed of light at the surface of a body. The angular momentum of the body is . This fraction represents angular momentum in Newton's equations.

## The law of space and energy conservation

Space and energy may not be created nor destroyed. Space is compressed and uncompressed by energy inside of it.

## The law of additive space compression

When two particles interact, the compressed space around them is compressed further by the sum of the two levels. This is known as *additive space compression. *The compression is equal to the energy of the particle multiplied by the mass of the particle.

*Let = total energy of particle #1*

*Let = mass of particle #1 as energy
*

*Let = total energy of particle #2*

*Let = mass of particle #2 as energy*

Let = distance between the particles

Let c = the new compression level

Let = distance between the particles

## The law of kinetic energy and motion

An object at rest with respect to another body remains at rest unless acted on by an outside kinetic force. When acted on by such force, kinetic energy is imparted upon the object through conservation of momentum, a property of space compression. The object accelerates by the square root of the distance to the halfway point and then decelerates by the inverse square of the distance to the end point.

**To compute the distance and acceleration/deceleration when transferring kinetic energy**

*Let f = force applied
*

*Let a = acceleration*

*Let distance = distance travelled*

The above formula is based on f=ma, with the m replaced by the formulation e=m(1/c\times distance^2).

## The law of potential energy motion

When an object is moved upward, aether compression around the object decreases, and potential energy is imparted to the object. If the object falls, this potential energy is used to compress aether again and the net transfer of energy is zero. If the body has escape velocity, the body retains the extra energy as potential energy and travels away at a constant rate. Aether compression does not drain potential energy, it simply borrows it. When an object moves to an area of lesser aether compression, potential energy increases, and when moving to an area of greater compression decreases it. The object will accelerate as aether compression decreases and decelerate as it increases.

a=

A spacecraft should undergo continuous acceleration when leaving the solar system, but the acceleration won't be noticed until the space compression reduces significantly. It should be noted that an anomaly in the acceleration of Pioneer^{7} was noted when it passed a distance of 3×10^{9} km from the Sun. It began to constantly accelerate. This is because acceleration begins very slowly but then speeds up quicker and quicker exponentially as the distance increases.

### To compute the potential energy for a body raised to a specific distance:

*Let = the measure of the speed of light at the surface of a body
Let = the distance above the body*

## The law of gravity

Gravity is defined by

is the level of aether compression, is the speed of light.

### Computing terminal velocity (absent atmospheric drag)

When an object falls if it has potential energy and/or kinetic energy space compresses faster than when there is no extra energy, as the energy is borrowed for space compression. Because space compression decreases exponentially in reaction to the energy, the object accelerates. When the object runs out of energy in excess of mass, it reaches terminal velocity and the mass of the object is considered part of the mass of the body it is falling toward. At this point motion becomes linear and the body falls at a constant rate.

*Let distance be the distance from the falling object to the body being fallen toward
*

*Let be the kinetic energy of the object, the potential energy of the object*

*Let be the mass of the body being fallen toward*

**Atomic model**

Before I can talk about the fundamental forces, I must introduce a new atomic model. This model is built around neutrinos. The major particles of the Universe are neutrinos, photons of three flavors, electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, and neutrons. There is math confirming this model after some the description of the model.

**Mass**

As the space compression level increases, space becomes increasingly solid due to the equal opposite force against aether compression. The particle "carves out" space in a sphere of radius

Particles move at a speed relative to their mass and are slowed down by aether compression. Mass is the same everywhere because the energy of each particle is slowed down or speed up at a constant rate compared to aether compression.

**Particles of matter**

All particles are composed from the smallest quanta of energy possible, the neutrino. Neutrinos have spin, in either the left or right direction. Spin is responsible for charge and each neutrino contributes to the charge of the particle. Just like planets only spin on one axis, particles also spin on one axis. A particle rotated in such a way that it's orientation of spin is up/down is still spinning in the same direction. The atomic model described here is symmetrical, as every particle has an accompanying anti-particle. The movement and interaction of neutrinos through spin cancellation is responsible for all of the major physical interactions in the Universe. All fundamental particles other than the neutrino are built from combinations of the particles created before them, thus this model replaces the standard model. An explanation for the particles seen in accelerators is discussed at the end of this section.

## Antimatter

When particles and antiparticles meet they do not annihilate, but instead cancel spin. That is, R and L particles are attracted to each other and come together as orbits.

## Atomic notation

When a left and right spin neutrino meet, for example, an LR-photon is created. This model includes L-photons, R-photons, LR-photons and RL-photons. These different photons have roles in quantum entanglement and magnets, both of which are explained later in this paper. All matter is made up of photons, both matter and anti-matter.

## The fundamental particles and their configurations

Particle | nu | Particles & Spin | Charge |
---|---|---|---|

L-neutrino | 1 | L | - |

R-neutrino | 1 | R | + |

L-photon | 2 | L+L | - |

R-photon | 2 | R+R | + |

LR or RL-photon | 2 | L+R or R+L | 0 |

positron | 3 | LR + L | + |

electron | 3 | R + LR | - |

proton | 5 | LRL + RL | + |

antiproton | 5 | RLR + LR | + |

neutron | 8 | RLRLRLRL | 0 |

anti-neutron | 8 | LRLRLRLR | 0 |

The underlined particles represent fused bonds, the strong nuclear force. The + indicate weaker bonds through spin cancellation, the weak nuclear force. The fused bonds happen during fusion in stars, and stellar explosions. There is more on the specific creation process for each particle in the cosmology section at the end of the paper, but essentially when enough energy is applied two smaller particles are fused into a bigger particle. For example, the neutron is a proton fused with an electron via a supernova. You will notice that LL and RR photons don't normally make up matter. They are important in quantum entanglement and ferromagnetism, discussed later.

The formula for Hydrogen is LRLRLRLR which is the same as a neutron, which is a proton orbiting an electron. Thus hydrogen gas is a cloud of neutrons. Helium is more complex, it consists of neutrons (hydrogen) tightly bound to itself through fusion, surrounded by protons and electrons. Thus, it has the form RLR + LRLRL + RLRLRLRL + RLRLRLRL + LRLRL + RLR, that is, at the left and right (the outside of the atom) are electrons, then inside that protons, then inside that neutrons.

**The interior of an atom**

All atoms are constructed from photons, which are constructed from neutrinos. An electron is constructed from an RL-photon and a LL-photon, and a positron from an LR-photon and a RR-photon. A proton consists of a positron and a photon. A neutron is made from 10 photons, and a proton and an electron, combined. The heaviest of the particles is the neutron. Anti-neutrons don't exist, as their formulation would be identical to the neutron.

Neutrons crowd at the center of an atom because they are massive and rotate around each other at high speeds. Protons are lighter by 4NU, so they rotate around the neutrons, or occupy the center of the nucleus in atoms without a neutron. The electrons are very light. They are lighter than a neutron by 6NU. The electrons orbit at a considerably greater distance.

When a photon strikes an electron, 2NU of energy is added to the electron and the distance from the nucleus is increased because the particle is able to compress more space and tries to leave orbit. The energy is quickly siphoned off by space compression and the photon returns to its original state. This phenomenon is known as the quantum leap. Photons do not have enough energy to penetrate protons or neutrons, so they do not experience such leaps.

## Identifying the neutrino

**As described, an electron is three NU, or the mass of three neutrinos:**

*Let =rest mass of an electron()*

*Let = rest mass of a neutrino
*

**Energy of neutrino:
**

Referring to the standard model^{8}, we can find a particle that has the rest mass very close to that of a nuetrino. It is the** muon neutrino.**

## Confirming the model

### Confirming the structure of a neutron

Given that an electron is 3NU, it is a pretty good confirmation of the model, but it can be further confirmed by ensuring that the prediction that a neutron is the sum of a proton and an electron matches the real masses of those particles.

*Let M1 = mass of proton
*

*Let M2 = mass of electron*

*Let M3 = mass of neutron*

*M3 in joules*=

The mass of an electron and a photon add up to the mass of a neutron. There is a little more mass, but this is accounted for by energy used for additive space compression. The energy used for space compression is M3 in joules.

## Reconciling the standard model

What the standard model identifies as the charm quark in an accelerator is actually the neutrino. In the standard model anything other than a charm quark can be discarded, as they are *imaginary particles*. Since space compression creates mass when two energetic particles are smashed into each other in a collider, a great deal of energy is released, and the two particles creates new particles through *fusion* that don't exist naturally, in addition to creating fundamental particles through the energy release.

A good analogy is the creation of transuranic elements such as technetium. Technetium is never stable, and neither are the imaginary particles. They decompose into other elementary particles because there is not enough energy to hold them together. It is this decomposition process the leads to all the different particles in the standard model.

### Determining the structure of the top quark

*Let* ,* the energy of the top quark
*

*Let the voltage of the top quark be positive*

*Let*,

*mass of neutron*

*Let*

Thus there are 185 neutrons, 1 positron (positive energy), and of energy used for space compression in the top quark.

The top quark is the heaviest imaginary particle.

**Forces and fields**

## Angular momentum transfer (orbits) replace the weak and strong forces

The atomic model above explained how all matter is constructed of rotating systems of particles. For example, the Neutron is a electron orbiting a proton, each of which are composed of orbiting photons, which are composed of orbiting Neutrinos. At the end of the paper there is a cosmology section that deals with the creation of all matter, and describes how fusion assembed these bound particles together into orbits. Since "gravity" is the force holding the particles together, there is not need for nuclear forces.

**Electromagnetism**

All particles but the LR-photon and the neutron carry charge. Iron, is made in the last phase of the massive stars. In these stars, both iron and anti-iron are created in approximately equal amounts (see the evolution of the Universe in the cosmology section). When iron is found in nature, it is made of equal amounts of iron and anti-iron, the particles of which feature an attraction to a matter or antimatter counterpart. These attract each other a opposite poles, and thus there is a positively charged end and negatively charged end present at each sides of the magnet. Anti-iron has positrons (RL+R) in the outer shell, the regular iron has electrons (LR+L) in the outer shell. These attract the two particles to form RL+R+L+RL bonds between the particles in the magnet. In the regular iron, the LR+L structure of the electrons allows the L-neutrino to be pulled away from the electron. In the anti-iron, the positrons have an R-neutrino which can be pulled away.

Remembe that photons normally take the form LR or RL, but L+L and R+R photons are possible as well, but only briefly since like spins repel and opposite spins attract, thus L+L and R+R photons fly apart as soon as they form. This is important, because it is the key to magnetic force.

The attractive force in the magnet on one side is so strong, that it is breaks the attractive force between the third neutrino in the electron or positron. The attractive force from the opposite side of the magnet pulls away a free L-neutrino, or R-neutrino, which then moves in a arc *outside of the physical shape of the magnet* to the other pole where the external particle in the attaches to the electron or positron. Thus R+LR becomes L+LR and L+RL becomes LR+R. R+R bonds and L+L bonds repel, so the photons continuously hop from one pole to next pole and then hop back again.

### Attraction

Two magnets are attracted due to angular momentum cancellation by particle spin. The magnets compress space as they come together, which uses energy for additive aether compression, and when pulled apart the energy is returned to the space.

**The electromagnetic field is described by the inverse square law**

The force at either end of the magnet is half the total mass of the magnet, because each pole carries half the force. The force decreases by the inverse square law.

*Let there be a magnet of any mass M.
*

*Let distance be the distance from the pole of the magnet*

*Let f describe the force of the magnet at each pole*

# Black holes

Entropy must proceed inside of black hole because entropy can not stop. The *speed of entropy *slows down as the space compression level increases, because light slows down. Inside a black hole time becomes so slow that it effectively stops with respect to clocks outside the horizon, but it is not really stopped. It is a kind of Zenu's paradox - the closer you get the higher the compression, you grow progressively slower and you'll never reach the center. This is because anything falling toward the core slows down perpetually as the compression increases.

**What happens when matter falls into a black hole**

All matter is made of photons. As matter falls into a black hole it is shredded into neutrinos. The energy released by the shredding results in jets of energy being released from the black hole. Since a photon contains two particles, the left spinning particle moves left in the black hole and the right spinning particle moves right. Both particles travel in an orbit around the black hole which can be visualized like a whirlpool. Time slows exponentially in the whirlpool as you approach the bottom.

When the particles collide with each other reality plays back at the speed of a photon because aether compression slows time as the particles meet. This process continually happens over and over again as the particles fall toward the center.

### Time evolution in a black hole

In the black hole, a piece of matter than falls into the black hole. Entropy slows progressively between T1 and T2, and T2 and T3, and so forth. An object falling into the black hole will fall in forever and never reach the center of the black hole.

## Black hole reality paradox

Since external reality plays out inside the of a black hole at the speed of photons, it is impossible to determine if the reality we experience is the experience of a planet in the milky-way galaxy, or if we are the reflection of that galaxy in the black hole at the center of the it.

# Cosmology

## The nature of the Universe

There is plenty of evidence for a big bang. It is possible to use the at-rest reference frame to formulate a model of the Universe before the big bang. In this at-rest frame, all of the energy of the Universe is in one place, spinning. Somehow, as if some switch is thrown, a spark of energy is added, the source of which is unknown. The simplest, and most likely explanation for this addition of kinetic energy is that there is more than one Universe. When the two Universes struck, they exchanged energy. The energy is kinetic energy and as such, the single particle flew about in all directions. According to the law of kinetic motion, adding kinetic energy causes a body to accelerate and then decelerate to a stop. Thus, the Universe very quickly expanded to it's halfway point, then decelerating, stopping at the edge of the Universe. Since space can not be created or destroyed according to the law of energy and space conservation, the Universe is not expanding, which would create space. The Universe will not contract, either. This means that there will be no heat death of the Universe. Energy would be transferred away from the Universe as the point where the Universes collided. There is evidence for this in the WMAP ^{10}. The cosmic background radiation cold spot is the place where the two Universes struck, and is the center of the Universe.

It is likely that the our Universe is fractal in nature. Our Universe is nested in another Universe, which is nested in another Universe, and so forth.

## The evolution of the Universe

In the early Universe after the big bang, there existed only a cloud of L-neutrinos and R-neutrinos. Since the neutrinos have mass, the left and right neutrinos form clouds of loosely bound LR-photons, which then collapse into dark ultramassive stars, the most massive stars to have ever existed. Fusion in these welds the neutrinos together into LR-photons and light is created.

Once enough LR-photons are created, the star can not hold together and it explodes in an ultranova. The resulting stellar collapse formed ultramassive black holes, the enormous objects which are the foundation for the filaments in the Universe. After the explosion, the LR-photons and remaining L and R orbit to form electrons and positrons. This matter collapses into supermassive stars where fusion produces protons and anti-protons.

Once neutron production starts, the stars explode again. All of the material collapses again into supermassive stars, which fuse together neutrons and form hydrogen.

Once helium production begins these explode again, and the energy of the explosion forms helium and many of the basic elements, and the black hole produced forms the center of galaxies. Again, this matter collapsed into a new generation of stars, the massive stars. In these stars, fusion procedes to iron. When those stars exploded it created all the elements we know via fusion, and finally the final generation of stars formed, today's generation.

# Resolving the remaining problems in general relativity

**Galaxy rotation curve (dark matter)**

The observation that the angular velocity on the outside of a galaxy compared to the inside of the galaxy was wrong, led to the hypothesis that there is dark matter in the Universe that is not visible, but has mass to provide gravitation. As gravity does not cause mass, but rather space compression does, there is no basis for dark matter.

The effect of space compression on light is similar to the time dilation in general relativity, but the speed increases as the light moves away from the center of mass continuously.

Near the core of the galaxy time is slowed greatly, just as Mercury is slowed, and GR predicts this correctly. In a spiral galaxy, the edge of the galaxy has a much lower amount of matter, and the stars are very far away from the center of the galaxy. This combines to result in a much faster than expected angular velocity compared to GR.

**The math to compute the accelerated angular velocity without using dark matter**

*Let = distance to the star from earth
*

*Let*=

*the measure of speed of light on earth*

*Let*

*,*

*compute the speed of light at the target*

*Let*, the rate at which time is sped up at the star

## Accelerating expansion of the Universe (dark energy)

Because space may not be created or destroyed, it is very likely that the Universe is a disk of matter which thins at the edges, just like a spiral galaxy. If this is the case, the redshift is due to the Universe thinning at the edges. There appears to be a symmetry to the Universe. That is, particles look like solar systems, atoms look like galaxies, solar systems look like atoms, galaxies look like solar systems, thus it is likely that the Universe looks like a galaxy too.

**It is possible to quantify the speedup of light at the edge of the Universe**

* = the speed of Light at the surface of earth, 299792
*

*Let distance = 46 billion light years in km, = 4.35184307 × 10*

^{23}**Compute the speed of light at edge of Universe using distance:
**

## Dark flow

Galaxies appear to move to fast due to the variable speed of light. In particular, galaxies near the edge of the galaxy will appear to move far too fast. The math for computing the actual speed of light at the edge of space is the same as the solution for the galaxy curve problem.

The same speedup responsible for the perceived acceleration of the Universe is responsible for dark flow.

**Gravity waves**

Gravity waves do not exist. Interactions between differently compressed space are additive. Two black holes rotating lose energy through increasing space compression, not through gravity waves.

**Frame-dragging**

The faster a body rotates the more energy it has. space is compressed relative to the total mass-equivalent energy of the rotating body. This means it will increase space compression, affecting the orbit of the of nearby bodies.

**Why is time travel impossible**

Since time itself doesn't exist, it is impossible to travel in time. Often time travel is proposed by using exotic energy to 'bend space' . This is impossible. As energy is added to a volume of space, space compresses and time slows down. Space doesn't bend, it just compresses with response to energy. You would effectively encase yourself in a volume of space where time has effectively stopped. To put the final nail in the coffin, time can only be measured through entropy. Entropy does not reverse. You can not travel back in time because you would have to unwind entropy to get there.

**Gravitational time dilation**

Computing the precession of Mercury shows that gravitational time dilation exists as described by this theory.

# Resolving the problems in Quantum Mechanics

**Wave/particle duality**

A neutrino is a spinning quanta of energy that displaces space around it. All particles are made of neutrinos. As the particle moves through space, the space is compressed. This compression creates a wave via the Doppler effect. space is compressed in front of the particle and decompresses behind the particle. An analogy might be the shape of a comet. The wavelength depends on the level of space compression, which can be considered an index of refraction.

**Uncertainty Principle**

When you use a device to measure something, the space compression level increases which causes the particles being examined to slow down slightly. In the dual slit experiment, for example, the particles of light are slowed down by the measurement device because as the device approaches the particle being measured, it is slowed through additive space compression.

**Quantum Entanglement**

When two photons are entangled the particles are brought together in such a way that you end up with a pair of orbiting L-photons and R-photons. Since like charges repel, like in electromagnetism, the particles rotate in a 4 particle system at the speed of neutrinos, which is faster than light. Recent experimental evidence shows that a photon can be entangled with itself. In this case the spin of an LR-photon is modified by adding energy so that it becomes a pair of L-neutrinos. Because energy was added, one of the L-neutrinos orbits the other L-neutrino and they do not fly apart.

**Spontaneous particle generation**

When an LL photon and an LR photon collide, there is not enough energy to fuse them together (this only happens in novae) and they break apart into four neutrinos. These will form back into photons quickly, and the neutrinos are gone.

**Quantum tunneling**

Spontaneous particle creation sometimes creates a particle right next to another particle. Two pieces of mass can not exist in the same place, and the particle is pushed through space faster than light. There is no borrowed energy. The particle that caused the movement was created from space and will return to space, and imparted no kinetic energy on the other particle.

**Black hole information paradox**

No information is lost in a black hole because time gets slower and slower inside. Anything that falls in is preserved. There is no Hawking radiation. If a photon spontaneously generates next to a black hole it does so from the energy stored in space. This is in contrast to QM which holds that the particles are created from energy of light as mass. Because the energy comes from the energy already in space, it means that the energy is conserved if one particle falls in.

## Neutrinos** and radiation**

During certain periods, the sun will increase the rate at which neutrino production grows, creating a neutrino storm. When neutrinos interact with radioactive matter, like uranium, space compression increases. Radioactive isotopes are already unstable, and the mass change leads to increased radioactivity. It is possible to quantify the amount of neutrinos passing by comparing the ratio of the rate of activity during the event, and the rate before.

*Let be the measure of the speed of light before the storm
Let be the rate of radioactivity before the neutron storm
Let be the rate during the storm
Let e be the energy of rest mass of the isotope, let e=m
Let z = neutrino mass*

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