## Displacement, orbits, and time

### Rotational velocity/displacement force of a body.

The displacement rate is calculated as the rate of travel of a meter measuring rod, placed at the equator of the body, perpendicular to the axis of the body. This rod traverses the circumference of the body in exactly 86400 seconds. This rate is the rate at which time flows on that body. This is also a measure of the force exerted on the other bodies in the Universe. This force decreases via the inverse square law, while the rate of time correspondingly increases at the same rate.

The constant b (used below) is similar to Newton's constant G. But rather than representing a pull from everything else, it is the displacement force of all of the other bodies in the Universe on every other body pushing on every other body, essentially the "pressure" of the Universe.

### Rotational velocity is calculated with the following equation:

The rotational velocity is assigned , as the resulting value can be represented as angular velocity:

### Orbital period / spatial density

### Orbital velocity

## Clocks, the speed of light, and gravity

When a clock is moved to another body, it will automatically slow. If you were to go to Jupiter for example, and spent 24 hours awake, those 24 hours would feel exactly the same as 24 hours on Earth, but 60.48 hours would pass on Earth. As energy is added to a body, time slows.

It is impossible for anything except neutrinos to reach or exceed the speed of light, because light has the second lowest energy of any other particle, thus it moves the faster than everything except neutrinos.

### Speed of light adjusted for spatial density (299792km/s at earth g)

### Change in the rate of time with distance from bodies

### Gravity is relative to the speed of light (which is relative to density)

## Mass/energy conversion

### Special relativity equivalent equations:

### Unified representation:

## Constants

**Atomic model**

Before I can talk about the fundamental forces, I must introduce a new atomic model. This model is built around neutrinos. The major particles of the Universe are neutrinos, photons of three flavors, electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, and neutrons. There is math confirming this model after some the description of the model.

**Mass**

As the space compression level increases, space becomes increasingly solid due to the equal opposite force against aether compression. The particle "carves out" space in a sphere of radius

Particles move at a speed relative to their mass and are slowed down by aether compression. Mass is the same everywhere because the energy of each particle is slowed down or speed up at a constant rate compared to aether compression.

**Particles of matter**

All particles are composed from the smallest quanta of energy possible, the neutrino. Neutrinos have spin, in either the left or right direction. Spin is responsible for charge and each neutrino contributes to the charge of the particle. Just like planets only spin on one axis, particles also spin on one axis. A particle rotated in such a way that it's orientation of spin is up/down is still spinning in the same direction. The atomic model described here is symmetrical, as every particle has an accompanying anti-particle. The movement and interaction of neutrinos through spin cancellation is responsible for all of the major physical interactions in the Universe. All fundamental particles other than the neutrino are built from combinations of the particles created before them, thus this model replaces the standard model. An explanation for the particles seen in accelerators is discussed at the end of this section.

## Antimatter

When particles and antiparticles meet they do not annihilate, but instead cancel spin. That is, R and L particles are attracted to each other and come together as orbits.

## Atomic notation

When a left and right spin neutrino meet, for example, an LR-photon is created. This model includes L-photons, R-photons, LR-photons and RL-photons. These different photons have roles in quantum entanglement and magnets, both of which are explained later in this paper. All matter is made up of photons, both matter and anti-matter.

## The fundamental particles and their configurations

Particle | nu | Particles & Spin | Charge |
---|---|---|---|

L-neutrino | 1 | L | - |

R-neutrino | 1 | R | + |

L-photon | 2 | L+L | - |

R-photon | 2 | R+R | + |

LR or RL-photon | 2 | L+R or R+L | 0 |

positron | 3 | LR + L | + |

electron | 3 | R + LR | - |

proton | 5 | LRL + RL | + |

antiproton | 5 | RLR + LR | - |

neutron | 8 | RLRLRLRL | 0 |

anti-neutron | 8 | LRLRLRLR | 0 |

The underlined particles represent fused bonds, the strong nuclear force. The + indicate weaker bonds through spin cancellation, the weak nuclear force. The fused bonds happen during fusion in stars, and stellar explosions. There is more on the specific creation process for each particle in the cosmology section at the end of the paper, but essentially when enough energy is applied two smaller particles are fused into a bigger particle. For example, the neutron is a proton fused with an electron via a supernova. You will notice that LL and RR photons don't normally make up matter. They are important in quantum entanglement and ferromagnetism, discussed later.

The formula for Hydrogen is LRLRLRLR which is the same as a neutron, which is a proton orbiting an electron. Thus hydrogen gas is a cloud of neutrons. Helium is more complex, it consists of neutrons (hydrogen) tightly bound to itself through fusion, surrounded by protons and electrons. Thus, it has the form RLR + LRLRL + RLRLRLRL + RLRLRLRL + LRLRL + RLR, that is, at the left and right (the outside of the atom) are electrons, then inside that protons, then inside that neutrons.

**The interior of an atom**

All atoms are constructed from photons, which are constructed from neutrinos. An electron is constructed from an RL-photon and a LL-photon, and a positron from an LR-photon and a RR-photon. A proton consists of a positron and a photon. A neutron is made from 10 photons, and a proton and an electron, combined. The heaviest of the particles is the neutron. Anti-neutrons don't exist, as their formulation would be identical to the neutron.

Neutrons crowd at the center of an atom because they are massive and rotate around each other at high speeds. Protons are lighter by 4NU, so they rotate around the neutrons, or occupy the center of the nucleus in atoms without a neutron. The electrons are very light. They are lighter than a neutron by 6NU. The electrons orbit at a considerably greater distance.

When a photon strikes an electron, 2NU of energy is added to the electron and the distance from the nucleus is increased because the particle is able to compress more space and tries to leave orbit. The energy is quickly siphoned off by space compression and the photon returns to its original state. This phenomenon is known as the quantum leap. Photons do not have enough energy to penetrate protons or neutrons, so they do not experience such leaps.

## Identifying the neutrino

**As described, an electron is three NU, or the mass of three neutrinos:**

*Let =rest mass of an electron()*

*Let = rest mass of a neutrino
*

**Energy of neutrino:
**

Referring to the standard model^{1}, we can find a particle that has the rest mass very close to that of a nuetrino. It is the** muon neutrino.**

## Confirming the model

### Confirming the structure of a neutron

Given that an electron is 3NU, it is a pretty good confirmation of the model, but it can be further confirmed by ensuring that the prediction that a neutron is the sum of a proton and an electron matches the real masses of those particles.

*Let M1 = mass of proton
*

*Let M2 = mass of electron*

*Let M3 = mass of neutron*

*M3 in joules*=

The mass of an electron and a photon add up to the mass of a neutron. There is a little more mass, but this is accounted for by energy used for additive space compression. The energy used for space compression is M3 in joules.

## Reconciling the standard model

What the standard model identifies as the muon neutrino in an accelerator is actually the naked neutrino. In the standard model anything larger than a neutron can be regarded as *imaginary particles*. Since space compression creates mass when two energetic particles are smashed into each other in a collider, a great deal of energy is released, and the two particles creates new pseudo (or imaginary) particles through *fusion* which don't exist in nature, in addition to creating some fundamental particles (neutrons and smaller) as the imaginary particle falls apart and the energy is released by entropy.

A good analogy is the creation of transuranic elements such as technetium. Technetium is never stable, and neither are the imaginary particles. They decompose into other elementary particles because there is not enough energy to hold them together. It is this decomposition process the leads to all the different particles in the standard model.

### Determining the structure of the top quark

*Let* ,* the energy of the top quark
*

*Let the voltage of the top quark be positive*

*Let*,

*mass of neutron*

*Let*

Thus there are 185 neutrons, 1 positron (positive energy), and of energy used for space compression in the top quark.

The top quark is the heaviest imaginary particle.

**Forces and fields**

## Angular momentum transfer (orbits) replace the weak and strong forces

The atomic model above explained how all matter is constructed of rotating systems of particles. For example, the Neutron is a electron orbiting a proton, each of which are composed of orbiting photons, which are composed of orbiting Neutrinos. At the end of the paper there is a cosmology section that deals with the creation of all matter, and describes how fusion assembed these bound particles together into orbits. Since "gravity" is the force holding the particles together, there is not need for nuclear forces.

**Electromagnetism**

All particles but the LR-photon and the neutron carry charge. Iron, is made in the last phase of the massive stars. In these stars, both iron and anti-iron are created in approximately equal amounts (see the evolution of the Universe in the cosmology section). When iron is found in nature, it is made of equal amounts of iron and anti-iron, the particles of which feature an attraction to a matter or antimatter counterpart. These attract each other a opposite poles, and thus there is a positively charged end and negatively charged end present at each sides of the magnet. Anti-iron has positrons (RL+R) in the outer shell, the regular iron has electrons (LR+L) in the outer shell. These attract the two particles to form RL+R+L+RL bonds between the particles in the magnet. In the regular iron, the LR+L structure of the electrons allows the L-neutrino to be pulled away from the electron. In the anti-iron, the positrons have an R-neutrino which can be pulled away.

Remembe that photons normally take the form LR or RL, but L+L and R+R photons are possible as well, but only briefly since like spins repel and opposite spins attract, thus L+L and R+R photons fly apart as soon as they form. This is important, because it is the key to magnetic force.

The attractive force in the magnet on one side is so strong, that it is breaks the attractive force between the third neutrino in the electron or positron. The attractive force from the opposite side of the magnet pulls away a free L-neutrino, or R-neutrino, which then moves in a arc *outside of the physical shape of the magnet* to the other pole where the external particle in the attaches to the electron or positron. Thus R+LR becomes L+LR and L+RL becomes LR+R. R+R bonds and L+L bonds repel, so the photons continuously hop from one pole to next pole and then hop back again.

### Attraction

Two magnets are attracted due to angular momentum cancellation by particle spin. The magnets compress space as they come together, which uses energy for additive aether compression, and when pulled apart the energy is returned to the space.

**The electromagnetic field is described by the inverse square law**

The force at either end of the magnet is half the total mass of the magnet, because each pole carries half the force. The force decreases by the inverse square law.

*Let there be a magnet of any mass M.
*

*Let distance be the distance from the pole of the magnet*

*Let f describe the force of the magnet at each pole*

# Here are the computations for orbital velocity and rotational velocity of the Earth, in case you aren't convinced

V_a = D seconds * (1 meter per second / (( pi R_p meter seconds / 43200 seconds + pi R_s meter seconds/43200 seconds ) / R meter seconds) * 12)D is "braking force" from all the other energy in the Universe:

D seconds * ((1 meter per second / (((2 pi 6.3674447×10^6 meter seconds/86400 seconds) + (2 pi 6.955×10^8 meter seconds /86400 seconds)) / 1.48×10^11 meter seconds)) * 12)

3.48×10^7 m/s3.48×10^7 seconds * d = 3.06x10^7D = 0.879 seconds

Density reduces via the inverse square law:

V_a = V_a * 1/distance

Gravity and the effective speed of light:

B = (299792000 meters * 3.06x10^7 seconds) B = 9.174×10^15 meters

g = B/(V_a)^2g = 9.174×10^15 meters/(3.06x10^7 seconds)^2 = 9.798 m/s^2Orbital Velocity:

V_o = D(R_p * R_s / distance)

V_o = D((6.3674447×10^6 meters * 6.955×10^8 meters ) / 1.48×10^11 meter seconds) = 27194.0224 m /sConverting density to degrees:

360 degrees / V_a seconds = degrees/second

360/86400 = 1/240 angular degrees seconds squared * 0.879 second = 0.003663° (degrees/second)

360 degrees / 3.06x10^7 s = 1.176×10^-5 °/s

or 2.053×10^-7 rad/s (radians per second)