The older paper... Some math is deprecated by the other post.



There is a rate by which the thermodynamic process of entropy proceeds, a rate of entropy.  This rate is controlled by the additive space compression, discussed in the next section "space compression and motion".  The speed of entropy is always the same as the speed of light.  Thus as the level of compression increases, the rate of entropy slows down.  In this way,  space compression gives rise to time as the fourth dimension.  The fourth dimension is not a part of the fabric of space, but an emergent property of the spread of energy at a rate of the speed of light.  The process of entropy gives rise to the arrow of time, as entropy can not be undone and always proceeds forward without stopping.

Compression lensing

The conventional refraction index for light in space is \frac{c}{1}, which means that space will not curve light. With the refined value of c, \frac{1}{c} is redefined index of refraction in space.  Creating a wave in space (the doppler affect) borrows energy, which slows and curves the particle by changing the wavelength but not the frequency.   \frac{1}{c} is the space compression level and space compression bends light.  A change in space compression is a change in a medium and causes refraction. Frequency is generated by the frequency of emission at the source of the light and is not affected by space compression.  See wave particle duality in the quantum mechanics section.

Since space compression can be considered a proxy for gravity, it is acceptable to say that gravity bends light, but there is no gravity field to interact with the light.  The light is curved due to refraction in the medium of space.

Compressed space

The reason that distance in E=M(1/C\times distance^2) ^2 is squared twice is because energy is distributed in four dimensions.  There are three real dimensions, plus the forth perceived dimension, which is the speed at which the energy moves, in other words, the speed of entropy, which is time. general relativity predicts curved spacetime.

A particle imparts energy to space equal to the volume of the energy of the particle.

Let m equal the mass of a particle
Let distance = diameter of the particle, which is equal to the mass of the particle

E_{compression}=\frac{m(\frac{1}{c} * distance^2)^2\pi}{3}

That is, the volume of energy of compression is equal to the volume of the sphere created by the particle.  Energy spreads evenly over three dimensions and reduces with distance in all three dimensions.

Space compression and motion

Each of Newton's laws of motion has been modified by inserting special relativity into it.  In addition, a modern derivation of Newton's theorem of orbits is included as well.  The equations in this section are based on the the combination of Newton's Principia Mathematica1

Angular momentum

All particles spin left or spin right.  Let c be the measure of the speed of light at the surface of a body.   The angular momentum of the body is \frac{c}{\frac{1}{c}}.   This fraction represents angular momentum in Newton's equations.

The law of space and energy conservation

Space and energy may not be created nor destroyed.  Space is compressed and uncompressed by energy inside of it.

The law of additive space compression

When two particles interact, the compressed space around them is compressed further by the sum of the two levels.  This is known as additive space compression.  The compression is equal to the energy of the particle multiplied by the mass of the particle.

Let e_{1} = total energy of particle #1
Let m_{1} = mass of particle #1 as energy
Let e_{2} = total energy of particle #2
Let m_{2} = mass of particle #2 as energy
Let distance = distance between the particles
Let c = the new compression level

c=\frac{1}{(\frac{e_{1}+e_{2}}{m_{1}+m_{2}} \times distance^2) ^.5}

The law of kinetic energy and motion

An object at rest with respect to another body remains at rest unless acted on by an outside kinetic force.  When acted on by such force, kinetic energy is imparted upon the object through conservation of momentum, a property of space compression.   The object accelerates by the square root of the distance to the halfway point and then decelerates by the inverse square of the distance to the end point.

To compute the distance and acceleration/deceleration when transferring kinetic energy

Let f = force applied
Let a = acceleration
Let distance = distance travelled

a=\frac{m\times\frac{1}{c\times distance^2}^2}{f}

The above formula is based on f=ma, with the m replaced by the formulation e=m(1/c\times  distance^2).

The law of potential energy motion

When an object is moved upward, aether compression around the object decreases, and potential energy is imparted to the object.  If the object falls, this potential energy is used to compress aether again and the net transfer of energy is zero.  If the body has escape velocity, the body retains the extra energy as potential energy and travels away at a constant rate.  Aether compression does not drain potential energy, it simply borrows it.  When an object moves to an area of lesser aether compression, potential energy increases, and when moving to an area of greater compression decreases it.  The object will accelerate as aether compression decreases and decelerate as it increases.

a=\frac{m\times\frac{1}{c\times distance^2}^2}{Emass + Epotential +Ekinetic}

A spacecraft should undergo continuous acceleration when leaving the solar system, but the acceleration won't be noticed until the space compression reduces significantly.  It should be noted that an anomaly in the acceleration of Pioneer2 was noted when it passed a distance of  3×109 km from the Sun.  It began to constantly accelerate.  This is because acceleration begins very slowly but then speeds up quicker and quicker exponentially as the distance increases.

To compute the potential energy for a body raised to a specific distance:

Let c_{1} = the measure of the speed of light at the surface of a body
Let distance = the distance above the body

Epotential= (\frac{e}{m\times distance^2})^.5 - c_{1}

Computing terminal velocity (absent atmospheric drag)

When an object falls if it has potential energy and/or kinetic energy space compresses faster than when there is no extra energy, as the energy is borrowed for space compression.  Because space compression decreases exponentially in reaction to the energy, the object accelerates.  When the object runs out of energy in excess of mass, it reaches terminal velocity and the mass of the object is considered part of the mass of the body it is falling toward.  At this point motion becomes linear and the body falls at a constant rate.

Let distance be the distance from the falling object to the body being fallen toward
Let e_{k} be the kinetic energy of the object, m_{p} the potential energy of the object
Let m be the mass of the body being fallen toward

a=\frac{m\times\frac{1}{c\times distance^2}^2}{e_{p}+e_{k}}


Black holes

Entropy must proceed inside of  black hole because entropy can not stop.  The speed of entropy slows down as the space compression level increases, because light slows down.   Inside a black hole time becomes so slow that it effectively stops with respect to clocks outside the horizon, but it is not really stopped.  It is a kind of Zenu's paradox - the closer you get the higher the compression, you grow progressively slower and you'll never reach the center.   This is because anything falling toward the core slows down perpetually as the compression increases.

What happens when matter falls into a black hole

All matter is made of photons.  As matter falls into a black hole it is shredded  into neutrinos.  The energy released by the shredding results in jets of energy being released from the black hole.   Since a photon contains two particles, the left spinning particle moves left in the black hole and the right spinning particle moves right.  Both particles travel in an orbit around the black hole which can be visualized like a whirlpool.  Time slows exponentially in the whirlpool as you approach the bottom.

When the particles collide with each other reality plays back at the speed of a photon because aether compression slows time as the particles meet.  This process continually happens over and over again as the particles fall toward the center.

Time evolution in a black hole

Time evolution in a black hole

In the black hole, a piece of matter that falls into the black hole slowly progresses between T1 and T2, and T2 and T3, and so forth.   An object falling into the black hole will fall in forever and never reach the center of the black hole.  The distance between T1 to T2 is smaller than T2 to T3, and the distance between T3 and T4 is smaller than that distance, and so forth.  Each circle smaller than the last, the radius never able to reach zero, no singularity.

Black hole reality paradox

Since external reality plays out inside the of a black hole at the speed of photons, it is impossible to determine if the reality we experience is the experience of a planet in the milky-way galaxy, or if we are the reflection of that galaxy in the black hole at the center of the it.


The nature of the Universe

There is plenty of evidence for a big bang.  It is possible to use the at-rest reference frame to formulate a model of the Universe before the big bang.  In this at-rest frame, all of the energy of the Universe is in one place, spinning.   Somehow, as if some switch is thrown, a spark of energy is added, the source of which is unknown.  The simplest, and most likely explanation for this addition of kinetic energy is that there is more than one Universe.  When the two Universes struck, they exchanged energy.   The energy is kinetic energy and as such, the single particle flew about in all directions. According to the law of kinetic motion, adding kinetic energy causes a body to accelerate and then decelerate to a stop.  Thus, the Universe very quickly expanded to it's halfway point, then decelerating, stopped expanding at the edge of the Universe.

Since space can not be created or destroyed according to the law of energy and space conservation, the Universe is not expanding, anymore, at any appreciable rate.    The Universe will not contract, either.   This means that there will be no heat death of the Universe.   Energy would be transferred away from the Universe as the point where the Universes collided.  There is evidence for this in the WMAP 3.  The cosmic background radiation cold spot is the place where the two Universes struck, and is the center of the Universe.

The Universe is fractal in nature.  Our Universe is nested in another Universe, which is nested in another Universe, and so forth.

The evolution of the Universe

In the early Universe after the big bang, there existed only a cloud of L-neutrinos and R-neutrinos. Since the neutrinos have mass, the left and right neutrinos form clouds of loosely bound LR-photons, which then collapse into dark ultramassive stars, the most massive stars to have ever existed. Fusion in these welds the neutrinos together into LR-photons and light is created.

Once enough LR-photons are created, the star can not hold together and it explodes in an ultranova. The resulting stellar collapse formed ultramassive black holes, the enormous objects which are the foundation for the filaments in the Universe. After the explosion, the LR-photons and remaining L and R orbit to form electrons and positrons. This matter collapses into supermassive stars where fusion produces protons and anti-protons.

Once neutron production starts, the stars explode again. All of the material collapses again into supermassive stars, which fuse together neutrons and form hydrogen.

Once helium production begins these explode again, and the energy of the explosion forms helium and many of the basic elements, and the black hole produced forms the center of galaxies. Again, this matter collapsed into a new generation of stars, the massive stars. In these stars, fusion procedes to iron. When those stars exploded it created all the elements we know via fusion, and finally the final generation of stars formed, today's generation.

Resolving the remaining problems in general relativity

Galaxy rotation curve (dark matter)

The observation that the angular velocity on the outside of a galaxy compared to the inside of the galaxy was wrong, led to the hypothesis that there is dark matter in the Universe that is not visible, but has mass to provide gravitation.  As gravity does not cause mass, but rather space compression does,  there is no basis for dark matter.

The effect of space compression on light is similar to the time dilation in general relativity, but the speed increases as the light moves away from the center of mass continuously.

Near the core of the galaxy time is slowed greatly, just as Mercury is slowed, and GR predicts this correctly.  In a spiral galaxy, the edge of the galaxy has a much lower amount of matter, and the stars are very far away from the center of the galaxy.  This combines to result in a much faster than expected angular velocity compared to GR.

The math to compute the accelerated angular velocity without using dark matter

Let distance = distance to the star from earth
Let C_{1} = the measure of speed of light on earth
Let C_{2} = C_{1}\times distance^2, compute the speed of light at the target
Let R = \frac{C_{2}}{C_{1}}, the rate at which time is sped up at the star

 Accelerating expansion of the Universe (dark energy)

Because space may not be created or destroyed, it is very likely that the Universe is a disk of matter which thins at the edges, just like a spiral galaxy.  If this is the case, the redshift is due to the Universe thinning at the edges.  There appears to be a symmetry to the Universe.  That is, particles look like solar systems, atoms look like galaxies, solar systems look like atoms, galaxies look like solar systems, thus it is likely that the Universe looks like a galaxy too.

It is possible to quantify the speedup of light at the edge of the Universe
Let C_{1} = the speed of Light at the surface of earth, 299792
Let distance = 46 billion light years in km,  = 4.35184307 × 1023 

Compute the speed of light at edge of Universe using distance:
a=C_{1}\times distance^2
C_{2}=299792 + (299792\times (4.35184307^{10})^2)
C_{2}=1.7794449651608627997907414246493235975712931874725206854\times 10^{18}\frac{km}{s}

Dark flow

Galaxies appear to move to fast due to the variable speed of light.  In particular, galaxies near the edge of the galaxy will appear to move far too fast.  The math for computing the actual speed of light at the edge of space is the same as the solution for the galaxy curve problem.

The same speedup responsible for the perceived acceleration of the Universe is responsible for dark flow.

Gravity waves

Gravity waves do not exist.  Interactions between differently compressed space are additive.  Two black holes rotating lose energy through increasing space compression, not through gravity waves.


The faster a body rotates the more energy it has.  space is compressed relative to the total mass-equivalent energy of the rotating body.  This means it will increase space compression, affecting the orbit of the of nearby bodies.

Why is time travel impossible

Since time itself doesn't exist, it is impossible to travel in time.  Often time travel is proposed by using exotic energy to 'bend space' .  This is impossible.  As energy is added to a volume of space, space compresses and time slows down.  Space doesn't bend, it just compresses with response to energy.  You would effectively encase yourself in a volume of space where time has effectively stopped.  To put the final nail in the coffin, time can only be measured through entropy.  Entropy does not reverse.  You can not travel back in time because you would have to unwind entropy to get there.

Gravitational time dilation

Computing the precession of Mercury shows that gravitational time dilation exists as described by this theory.

Resolving the problems in Quantum Mechanics

Wave/particle duality

A neutrino is a spinning quanta of energy that displaces space around it.  All particles are made of neutrinos.   As the particle moves through space, the space is compressed.  This compression creates a wave via the Doppler effect.  space is compressed in front of the particle and decompresses behind the particle.  An analogy might be the shape of a comet.  The wavelength depends on the level of space compression, which can be considered an index of refraction.

Uncertainty Principle

When you use a device to measure something, the space compression level increases which causes the particles being examined to slow down slightly.  In the dual slit experiment, for example, the particles of light are slowed down by the measurement device because as the device approaches the particle being measured, it is slowed through additive space compression.

Quantum Entanglement

When two photons are entangled the particles are brought together in such a way that you end up with a pair of orbiting L-photons and R-photons.  Since like charges repel, like in electromagnetism, the particles rotate in a 4 particle system at the speed of neutrinos, which is faster than light.  Recent experimental evidence shows that a photon can be entangled with itself.  In this case the spin of an LR-photon is modified by adding energy so that it becomes a pair of L-neutrinos.  Because energy was added, one of the L-neutrinos orbits the other L-neutrino and they do not fly apart.

Spontaneous particle generation

When an LL photon and an LR photon collide, there is not enough energy to fuse them together (this only happens in novae) and they break apart into four neutrinos.  These will form back into photons quickly, and the neutrinos are gone.

Quantum tunneling

Spontaneous particle creation sometimes creates a particle right next to another particle.  Two pieces of mass can not exist in the same place, and the particle is pushed through space faster than light.  There is no borrowed energy.  The particle that caused the movement was created from space and will return to space, and imparted no kinetic energy on the other particle.

Black hole information paradox

No information is lost in a black hole because time gets slower and slower inside.  Anything that falls in is preserved. There is no Hawking radiation.  If a photon spontaneously generates next to a black hole it does so from the energy stored in space.  This is in contrast to QM which holds that the particles are created from energy of light as mass.  Because the energy comes from the energy already in space, it means that the energy is conserved if one particle falls in.

Neutrinos and radiation

During certain periods, the sun will increase the rate at which neutrino production grows, creating a neutrino storm.  When neutrinos interact with radioactive matter, like uranium, space compression increases.  Radioactive isotopes are already unstable, and the mass change leads to increased radioactivity.  It is possible to quantify the amount of neutrinos passing by comparing the ratio of the rate of activity during the event, and the rate before.

Let c be the measure of the speed of light before the storm
Let R_{1} be the rate of radioactivity before the neutron storm
Let R_{2} be the rate during the storm
Let e be the energy of rest mass of the isotope, let e=m
Let z = neutrino mass

e=(\frac{m}{c\times \frac{R_{2}}{R_{1}}})^2
neutrinos = \frac{e}{z}



  1. Newton, I., Motte, A., Cajori, F. and Crawford, R. (1934). Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical principles of natural philosophy and his System of the world. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.
  2., (2015). The Problem with Gravity: New Mission Would Probe Strange Puzzle. [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 Mar. 2015]
  3., (2015). The void: Imprint of another Universe? - space - 24 November 2007 - Control - New Scientist. [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 Mar. 2015].
  4. Lentz, Arjen; Patel, Adrian; Pulley, Edward; Relear, Maxwell; Stine, Jake (1994-2015). Special thanks to these individuals for conversations and brainstorming.

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